生物化学A(上、下)
Teaching Outlines of Biochemistry
发布时间: 2012-03-13   浏览次数: 429

 

Teaching Outlines of Biochemistry
Biochemistry A(III)
                            Credit hour 3, Period 3/week
Teachers: Weida Huang, Weirong Wang, Shuxuan Zhan
References
        Teaching materials:
http://www.vcampus.fudan.edu.cn/course_52
         Nelson and Cox, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry3rd edition
         Stryer    Biochemistry
      沈同等《生物化学》(第三版),高等教育出版社,2002
 
 
Chapter One   Introduction2 hours
1The Derivation of Science
2. The Meaning of Science
Book Learning-Development History of Subject-Researching Methodology
4. What is Biochemistry
5. The Chronicle of Biochemistry
6. Key Technologies in Biochemistry
7. What Can Biochemistry Tell us
 
Chapter Two   Water1 hour
1, Water
2. Hydrogen Bond
3. The Characteristics of Water
4. Hydriogen Bond in Liquid Water
5. Hydrogen Bond in Solid Water
6. The Relation of Intensity and Direction of Hydrogen Bond
7. Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
 
Chapter Three   Amino Acids3 hours
1. The History of Protein Researches
2. The Classifications of Protein
1)According to Physical-chemical Properties
2)According to Functions
3. The Nobel Winner in Protein Reseaches
4. Amino Acids Are the Basic Components of Protein
5. The Discovery of 20 Amino Acids
6. The Name and symbol of Amino AcidChinese Name, English Name, Three Character Name and Single Character Name
7. The Basic Structure of L-amino Acid
Huang’s Judgement
8. The Modified Amino Acids
9. The Optical Rotation of Amino Acids
10. The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Amino Acids
11. The Identification and Purification of Amino Acids
 
Chapter Four   The Primary Structure of Proteins4 hours
1. The Structure Levels of Proteins
2. The Peptide Bond Links Amino Acids
3. The Analysis Steps of the Primary Stucture of Proteins
4. The Cutting and Protection of disulfide bond
5.  The Problems Resulted From Cysteine
6. The Analysis Steps of the Primary Stucture of Proteins
7. The Hydrolysis of Peptide Bond
Chemical Methods
        Enzymatic Methods
8. The Determination Methods of N-terminal and C-terminal
N-terminal
1). Sanger Method
2). Edman Method
3). Dansyl Chloride/Edman Method
4). Enzymatic Digestion Method
C-terminal
1Hydrazine Method
23H-labeling Method
3Enzymatic Digestion Method  
4PFPA/PFPAA MEthod
9. Other Sequecing Methods
Dicarboxypeptidase (DCP) Method
Mass Spectrum Method
 
Chapter Five   The Higher Structure of Proteins4 hours
1. The Forces Maintaining the Conformation of Proteins
2. The Contributions of Linus Carl Pauling to the Higher Structure of Proteins
3. The Peptide Plane in Peptide Chain
4.  The Characters of Protein α-helix
5. Antiparallel β-sheet
6. Parallel β-sheet
7. The Higher Structure Levels of Proteins
 The Primary StructureAmino Acid Sequences
 The Second Structureα-helix,β-sheet
     The Super Second Structure
            Module
            Domain
 The Tertiary StructureThe Space Site of All Atoms
 The Quaternary StructurePolysubunit of Peptides
9. The Types of the Super Second Structure
10.        The First Structure Determines the Higher Structure
11.     Anfinsen’s Experiment
12. The Denaturation and Renaturation of Proteins
13. The Structure and Functions of Proteins

Chapter Six   The Structure and Functions of Proteins6 hours
1.        Understanding to the Relation of Structure and Function of Proteins
2.     Background of Reforming the Structure of Proteins
3.     Control of Protein Funtions
4.        Creations of New Function Proteins at One’s Pleasure
5.     Reseahing Methods for Protein Structure and Function
6. New Directions and New Techniques
1).Proteomics
2).Protein chips
3).Display/molecular evolution engineering
4).Two-hybrid system
5).Gene knockout mice
7. What is Proteomics?
8. Protein Chip Used for New Drug Selection
9. Databases for Proteins
//www.espasy.ch/swissmod/
//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
//www.rcsb.org/pdb/
 
Chapter Seven   The Physical-chemical Characteristics and Purifications of Proteins3 hours
1. The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Proteins
2. Several Electrophoretic Methods in Common Use
3. Some Chromatography Methods for Protein Purifications
4. Quantitative Analysis Methods of Proteins
 
Chapter Eight   Enzymology6 hours
1. The Nature of Enzyme
2.  The Researching History of Enzymology
3. Why Can Enzyme Catalyze Biochemical Reactions
4. Structure Concept of the Enzyme
5. Classification of Enzymes
6. The Relation between Enzymatic Reaction of V0 and [S]
Michaelis-Menten Equation
7. Three Kinds of Enzymatic Inhibitions
8.          Michealis-Menten Equations under Different Inhibitors
9. Effect of Temperature and pH on Enzymatic Acitivities
10. Enzymes with multi-subunits
11. RNA as Enzyme
12. Antibody as Enzyme
 
Chapter Nine   Nucleic Acids6 hours
1.  Researching History of Nucleic Acids1
2. Researching History of Nucleic Acids2)
3. Researching History of Nucleic Acids3)
4. Researching History of Nucleic Acids4)
5. Researching History of Nucleic Acids5)--rRNA
6. Researching History of Nucleic Acids6)--mRNA
7. Researching History of Nucleic Acids7)--tRNA
8.          RNAribonucleic acid
9.       DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid
10. Bases
11. Ribonuclesides and Rribonucletides
12.        Deoxyribonucleosides and Deoxyribonucleotides
13. Watson-Crick’s DNA Double Helix
The Primary Structure of Nucleic Acids
The Second Structure of Nucleic Acids—Double Helix
The Tertiary Structure of Nucleic Acids--Conformation
14. DNA Sequencing1-- Maxam /Gilbert Method
15. DNA Sequencing2--ddNTP Method
16. DNA and DNA Restriction Enzymes
17. The Denaturation of DNA
  DNA Denaturation and UV absorbtion
Effect of Salt Content on DNA Denaturation
Tm of DNA Is Related to the GC Content
The Relation of DNA Content and Renaturation Time
DNA Renaturation and Cot Analysis
Cot Curve of Human DNA
DNA Denaturation and Molecular Hybridization Techniques
Polymerase Chain Reaction
18. RNA—Structure and Molecular Characters
19. The Function of RNA
20.  The Central Law of Crick
21. The Processing Types of RNA
 
Chapter Ten   Carbohydrates and Glycobiology6 hours
1. The World of Sugars
2. Carbohydrates’ Concept in Biochemistry
3. Brief Researching History of Carbohydrates
4. The Composition, Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula of Carbohydrates
5. Classification of Carbohydrates
6. Chemical Structure of Glucose
7. The Straight Chain Structure of Glucose
8. Epimers
9. Optical Rotation of Glucose
10. Configuration of Carbohydrates
11. The Circle Structure of Glucose
12. The Mutarotation of Glucose
13. The Conformation of Glucose
14. The Structure of Other Monosaccharides
15. The Chemical Properties of Monosaccharides
16. Monosaccharides in Polysaccharides Complex
17. Monosaccharide Derivatives in Polysaccharides Complex
18. The Physical Characteristics of Monosaccharides
19. Oligosaccharides( oligose)
20.        Polysaccharides
Homopolysaccharides
Starchamylose, soluble starchandamylopectin
Glycogen
Cellulose
Chitin
Lentinan, Pachymaran and Laminarine
Dextran
Heteropolysaccharides
              Hyaluronic acid, hyaluronan
Chondroitin sulfate
Dermatan sulfate
Heparin
21. Polysaccharide Complex
           Glycolipids)、
              Glycoproteins)
              proteoglycans
22. Biological Functions of Polysaccharides
23. Glycobiology and Glycotechnology
 
Chapter Eleven   Lipids and Lipid Biochemistry4 hours
1. The Definition of Lipids
2.  The functions of Lipids
3. Classification of Lipids
4. Fatty acids
5. Amphipathic Lipid Aggregates That Forms in Water
6. Triacylglycerols( tryglycerides)
7.   Whale Wax
8. The Physical and Chemical Properties of Glycerides
9. Waxes
10. Membrane Lipids
Glycerophospholipids
Sphingolipids
Srerols
11. Lecithin(Phosphatidylcholine)
12.   Aether Lipids
13. Sphingosine and Sphingolipids
14. Lecithin and Sphingomyelin
15. Sphingolipids are the Biological Recognition Site
16. Steroids are the hydrocarbons with four fixed rings
17. Vitamin D and Steroid Hormones
18. Prostaglandins(PG)
19. Vitamin ADK and E
20.        Isolation and Analysis of Lipids
 
Chapter 12   Biomembrane and Transport2 hours
1.        Biomembrane
2.        Biomembrane under Electromicroscope
3.        The Basic Function of Biolodical Membrane
4.        Biochemical Characters of Biomembrane
5. The Molecular Composotions of Membrane
Basic Composotion
       Every Membrane Has a Dignoxtic Lipid Composition
Membrane Proteins
Membrane with Different Functions Has Different Proteins
Supermolecular Structure of Membrane
    Membrane Integral Proteins Are Not Water-soluble
Some Peripheral Proteins Are Covalent Anchored to Membrane Lipids
Memnrane Proteins Are Not Symmetry
6. Membrane Fusion Are Central Event to Many Biologic Processes
7. Transmembrane Transport
              Simple Diffusion
           Assistive Diffusion
              Passive Transport
           Permease
Cotransport
Chloride-bicarbonate Exchange Protein
Active Transport
Na+_K+ Pump
Ca2+ATPase
Ptype Vtype H+-ATPase
8.            Endocytosis and Exocytosis
9.            Signal Transduction
10.         Ion Channel
 
Chapter Thirteen  Vitamins and Coenzymes3 hours
1.      What Are Vitamins?
2. The Functions of Vitamins
3. Classification of Vitamins
4. Vitamin A and Carotene
5. Vitamin D
6. Vitamin E
7. Vitamin K
8. Thioctic Acid( Lipoic Acid)
9.  Family Vitamins
10. Vitamin B1 and TPP
11. Vitamin B2 and FADFMN
13. Nicotinic AcidNicotinamide and NADNADP
14. Vitamin B6 and Pyridoxal Phosphat
15Biotin and Biocytin
16 Pantothenic Acid and Coenzyme A(CoA)
17Folic Acid and Tetrahydrofolic Acid
18. Tetrahydrofolic Acid and One Carbon Unit Metabolism
19.  Vitamin B12
20. Vitamin C
21.  Vitamin and Cancer Therapy?
22. The Reasons of Vitamin Deficiency
 
Chapter Fourteen   Hormones and Signal Transduction3 hours
1.        The Definition of Hormones
2.        Neuronal Signaling and Endocrine Signaling
3. The Functions of Hormones
4. Classification of Hormones
5. Some familiar Hormones
6. Hormone Assay
7. Two Basic Mechanisms of Hormone Actions
8. Peptide Hormones
9. The Processing and Secretion of Insulin
10. The Hydrolysis and Processing of Proprehormones
11. Amine Hormones
12. Eicosanoids
13. Steroid Hormones
14. Hormone Signaling Hierarchy
15. Action Mechanism of Leptin
16. Epinephrine Signals Impending Activity
17. Insulin Signals High Blood Glucose
18. Glucagon Signals Low Blood Glucose
19.  cAmp Acts as a Second Messenger for a Number of Regulatory Molecules
20. Epinephrine Cascade
21. Other Second Messenger Molecules
 
 
Biochemistry A(II)
Credit hour 3, Period 3/week
Chapter One   General Introduction to Metabolism)(1 hour
1. The Concept of Metabolism
2. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
3. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Cycles between Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
4. Nitrogen Cycles in Biosphere
5. The Characters of Metabolism
6. Energies in Metabolism
7. Metabolic Researching Objects
8. Metabolic Researching Methods
9. Relations of Metabolism and Other Subjects
 
Chapter Two   Biological Oxidation3 hours
1. The Concept of Biological Oxidation
2. Charaters of Biological Oxidation
3. Manners of Biological Oxidation
4. Biological Oxidation System—Respiratory Chain
5. The Most Universal and Important Respiratory Chain in Human
6.        Electronic Carriers Act as Multi-enzymes Complex
7. Q-cycle
8. Functions of Respiratory Chain
9. Respiratory Complex Isolation
10. Electron and Proton Flow Diagram in Respiratory Chain
11. Proton Grads and ATP Synthesis
12. Shuttle Systems of NADH
13.        Adenine nucleotide translocase
14.     Formation of High Energic Bond
15. Oxidative Phosphorylation
      Oxidative Phosphorylation
P/O Ratio
Effectors of Oxidative Phosphorylation
Uncoupling Proteins, UCPs
Oxidative Pgosphorylation Mechanisms
ATP Synthatase
The Transfer, Storage and Utilization of Energy
16. Nonmitochondrial Oxidative System
Microsome Oxidative System
Peroxisome Oxidative System
 
 Chapter Three   Carbohydrate Metabolism8 hours
1. The Common Metabolic Processes of All Fuels
2. Digestion and Absorbtion of Carbohydrates
3. Blood Glucose
Concept
Sources
              Outlets
Regulations
              Sugar Tolerance
4. Glycogenesis
5. Glycogenolysis
6. Cori cycle
7. Glycolysis and Fermentation--EMP
Prelude of Other Carbohydrates Going into EMP
The Metabolic Fate of D-Glucose
Glycolysis
EMP Pathway
The Metabolic Fate of Pyruvic Acid
EMP Pathway
Table of EMP Reactions
Statements to EMP Pathway
The Fate of NADH+H+
Glycerol Fermentation by Yeast
EMP Summarization
Regulations of EMP Pathway
Other Monosaccharides Going into EMP Pathway
8.       Citric Acid Cycle Is the Central of Fuel Metabolism
Pyruvic to Acetyl CoA
The Reactions Catalyzed by Pyruvic Acid Dehydrogenase Complex
Pyruvic Dehydrogenase Complex
Regulation of Py dHE Complex
Citric Acid Cycle[Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle(TCA), Krebs cycle]
Lethal synthesis
Substrate Level Phosphorylation of TCA
TCA Summarization
Energy Metabolism in TCA
9.  Replenish Reactions
11. Regulations of TCA Metabolism
12. Gluconeogenesis
13. Futile Cycle
15.        HMP Pathway
16. Glucuronic Acid Pathway(Uronic Acid Pathway)
17. Carbohydrate Metabolic Block
18. Diabetes mellitus
 
Chapter Four   Photosynthesis2 hours
1. Photosynthesis
2. Two Steps of Photosynthesis
3. Chloroplast and Chlorophylls
4. Photoreaction System
Red drop
Synergism
Hill Reaction
PS II
PS I
      Photosynthetic Chain
Photosynthetic System and ATP Synthesis
Photophosphorylation
5. Dark Reaction
          Calvin cycle
RUBP Carboxylase/Oxygenase
Calvin Cycle
              Regulation
6. Sucrose Synthesis
7.        C4 Pathway(Hatch-Slack Pathway)
 
Chapter Five   Lipid Metabolism (5 hours)
1. Fat Metabolism
2. Fat Digestion ans Absorption
3. Fat Enzymatic Hydrolysis
4. Hormone Mobilization of Fat
5.        Hormone Regulation Of Fat Mobilization
6.        Glycerol Metabolism
7. Fatty Acid Oxidation
Activation
Carnitine Transport
b-oxidation
FA b-oxidation Summarization
8. Ketone Body Metabolism
9. Unsaturated Fatty Acid Oxidation
10. Odd Carbon Fatty Acid Oxidation
11. Fatty Acid Oxidation in Peroxisomes
12. Fatty Acid a-oxidation
13.        Fatty Acid w-oxidation
14Propanic Acid Metabolism
15. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acid
Acetyl CoA Is Transported as Citric Acid into Cytoplasm
Malonyl CoA
              Acetyl CoA Carboxylase
              Acyl Carrier Protein(ACP)
FA Synthetase Complex
Whole Synthetic Process of Palmitic Acid
      Differences between Synthesis and Catabolism of Palmitic Acid
Other Fatty Acids Synthesized from Palmitic Acid
Mitochondial Synthetic System of Fatty Acids
Microsomal Synthetic System of Fatty Acid
Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
16. Fat Synthesis
17. Formation and Preventiveness of Fatty Liver
18. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Phospholipids
19. Synthesis of Phospholipids
De novo Synthesis(Bacteria)
De novo Synthesis(Mammalian)
Salvage Pathway
20. Ceramide Synthesis
21. Digestion and Absorption of Cholesterol
22. Cholesterol Metabolism
23. Cholesterol Biosynthesis
24. Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis
       Cholelithiasis
       Asclerosis
25. Lipoproteins
Chylomicron(CM)
Very Low Density Lipoprotein(VLDL)
Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL)
High Density Lipoprotein(HDL)
26. Lipid Metabolic Block
Ketone body
Ketonemia
Ketonuria
Fatty Liver
Asclerosis
 
 
Chapter Six   Protein Degradation and Amino Acid Metabolism5 hours
1. Sources and Outlets of Ammonia
2. Mammalian Ammonia Catabolism
3. Amido Catabolism
4. Nitrogen Is The Biological Nitrogen Stocks
5. Nitrogen Cycle
6. Biological Nitrogen Fixation
7. Ammomnia Fixation
8. Digestion of Proteins
9. Protein Digestion Related Diseases
Celiac disease
Acute pancteatitis
Hypersusceptibility of Food Proteins
10. Common Metabolism of Amino Acids
Deamination
Transamination
United Deamination
              Deamidation
Decarboxylation
11Ammonia Transportation
12Ammonia Excretion
13. Urea Cycle(Ornithine Cycle)(Krebs-Henseleit Cycle)
      Urea Formation
Urea Cycle and TCA
Hepatic coma
14. Oxidation of Carbon Skeleton of Amino Acids
15. Amino Acid and One Carbon Unit
Gly and One Carbon Unit
Thr,Ser and One Carbon Unit
His and One Carbon Unit
Met and One Carbon Unit
One Carbon Unit and Biosynthesis
16. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
17. Branched Amino Acids Metabolism and Maple Sugar(Syrup) Urine Disease
18.        Aromatic Amino Acids Metabolism and Genetic Diseases
Phenylketonuria(PKU)
Albinism
Alkaptonuria
19. Some Biological Substances Synthesized from Amino Acids
 
Chapter Seven   Degradation of Nucleic Acids and Nucleotide Metabolism4 hours
1. Degradation of Nucleic Acids
NucleaseDNaseRNase
Phosphodiesterase
Nucleotidase (phosphomonoesterase)
Nucleosidase
2. Catabolism of Nucleotides
3. Catabolism of Purines
Xanthine Oxidase
Gout
Allopurinol
Suicide Substrate and Suicide
4Catabolism of Pyrimidines
5. Biosynthesis of Purine Nucleotides
De novo synthesis
Hypoxanthine de novo synthesis
Biosynthesis of IMP
Regulayions
Many Chemotherapeutic Reagents Are the Targets of Biosynthesis of Nucleotides
              Azaserine and Acivicin
              Fluorouracil, Methotrexate and Aminopterin
Salvage Synthesis of Purine Nucleotides --APRT and HGPRT
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome
6. Biosynthesis of Pyridine Nucleotides
7. Biosynthesis of Nucleoside Triphosphate
8. Biosynthesis of Deoxynucleotides
9Biosynthesis of dTMP
10. Selection of Fusion Cell
11. Biosynthesis of NAD
12 Biosynthesis of FMN and FAD
 
Chapter Eight   DNA Replication6 hours
1. The Central Law of Molecular Biology
2. DNA Replication
DNA Replication Models
DNA Semiconservative Replication
E. coli DNA Is a Replicon
Replication of Fruitfly DNA Has Multireplication Initiations
3. DNA Replication Manners
4. Replication of E. coli DNA
Initiation of DNA Replication
Single Direction Replication and Double Direction Replication
Rolling Replication
       D-loop Replication
5. Three Kinds of DNA Polymerases
Comparisons of Subunits of DNA Polymerase
Structure of E. coli DNA Polymerase III(V-type)
Combination of b-subunit and Template
6. Polymerase Chain Reaction
7. Incision Translation
8.  DNA Ligase
9. Three Models of DNA Replication on Replication Fork
10. Analysis of Okazaki Experiment
11. Topo I and Topo II
12. DnaB and SSB
13.        The Character of Nucleotide Sequence of E. coli Replication Initiation
14.        Proteins in DNA Replication Fork
15. Three Dimension Structure of Replication Fork
16. Replication of E. coli DNA
17. Remove of RNA Primer by Pol I 5’®3’ Activity
 
Chapter Nine   Damage Repair2 hours
1. DNA Damage Repair
2. Physical and Chemical Factors of DNA Damage
3. Structure of Some Chemical Inducers
4. UV Irradiation Forms Pyrimidine dimer
5. Repair of DNA Damage
6. Light Reactivation
7. Excision Repair
8. The Action Mechanism of uvrABC Nuclease
9. Methylation and Mispairing Repair
10. Recombination Repair
 
Chapter Ten   Transcription and Process6 hours
1. RNA Synthsis and Process
2. Result of Spiegelman’s Experiment
3. E.coli RNA Polymerase Subunit
4. Template Strand and Nontemplate Strand
5.        Promotor Structures
6.        E. coli Promotor
7. Foot Printing
8. Transcription Vesicle Model of RNA Transcription Elongation
9. Two Possiple Modes of RNA Elongation
10. RNA Elongation
11. Tryptophane mRNA
12. DNA Sequence Corresponding to 3’-terminal
13.       Terminator Structure
14.       Rho-dependent Transcription termination
15. Base Sequence of E. coli Terminator
16. RNA Transcription Inhibitors
17. Eukaryotic RNA Synthesis and Process
18.          Comparisons of Three kinds of EukaryoticRNA Polymerases
19.          Promotor of RNA Polymerase II
20. Initiation Complex Assemblage on TATA box Promotor
21.  Localization and Analysis of 5S rRNA Promotor
21.     5S rRNA Promotor Is within The Transcription Region
22.     Three Kinds of Cap Structure
23. The Cap Formation of mRNA 5’-terminal
23.        Excision of Primary Transcript and Polyadenylic acid
24.     Chicken Ovalbumin mRNA and Gene Hybrid Diagram
25.        Precusor mRNA to Mature mRNA of Chicken Ovalbumin
26. Self Splicing
27. Intron Splicing of GroupI and Group II
28. snRNA Participates in mRNA Splicing
29. Intron Excision in Yeast(Group IV-type)
30. Process of tRNA Precusor
31. Process of rRNA Precusor
32. Process of 30S rRNA Precusor
33. Process of 45S rRNA Precusor
34. RNA editing
35. Structure and Life History of HIV
 
Chapter Eleven   Protein Biosynthesis6 hours
1. Genetic Codon and Protein Biosynthesis
2. Ribosome Combination Experiment
3. Table of Codons
4. Different Codon in Mitochondia
5. Protein Biosynthesis
6. The Base Sequence of Yeast Ala- tRNA
7.        Common Characters of tRNA
8.        Three Dimension Structure of Yeast Phe-tRNA
9. tRNA X-ray Diagram
10. Codon and Anticodon pairing According to Wobble’s Hypothesis
11. Formation of Aminoacyl-AMP
12. Aminoacyl-tRNA
13. Comparisons of Prokaryotic mRNA and Eukaryotic mRNA
14. Composition of Ribosomes
15. The Secondary Structure of E. coli 16S rRNA
16. Formation of Formylmethionyl-tRNA
16.     Comparisons of mRNA S.D Sequences of Some Bacteria and Viruses
17. Initiation of Protein Biosynthesis on E. coli Ribosome
18. Cycle of Elongation Factor Tu(EF-Tu)
19. Formation of Peptide Bond
20. Elongation of E. coli Protein Synthesis
21. Termination of E. coli Protein Synthesis
22. Polyribosome
 
Chapter Twelve   Gene Expression and Regulation (3 hours)
1. Gene Expression and Regulation of Prokaryotes
2. Lac Operon
3. X-ray Structure of CAP-cAMP Complex
4. CAP Dimer
5. Ara Operon
6. trp operon
7. Attenuator Model of E.coli trp operon
8. The helix-turn-helix motif
9. HTH Motif of CAP Dimer
10. Combination of Helix-turn-helix motif and DNA
11. Zinc Finger Struture of Two Cys and Two His
12. Combination Model of TFIIIA Zinc Finger and 5S DNA
13. NMR Structure of Zinc finger
14. Leucine Zipper
15.          Complex of HLH and DNA
 
Chapter Thirteen   Introduction to Gene Engineering3 hours
1. Construction and Cloning of Recombinant DNA
2. Synthesizing cDNA by Reverse Transcription
3.        Construction cDNA Libraries
4.        pBR322 and pUC19
5. Multiple Cloning Sites
6. l Phage as a Cloning Vector
7. Basic Methods of Cloning Exogenous Gene into a Vector
8. Cosmid Cloning Vector
9. YAC
10. Hybridization in situ
11. Southern blotting
12. Microinjection of DNA
13. Ti-DNA